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10 Most Common Causes of Diabetes: from Genetic Factors to Daily Habits

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that interferes with the body's ability to process blood sugar into energy. 

All types of diabetes, both type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes have serious effects on the body. 

However, do you know what causes diabetes mellitus or also known as diabetes? Check out the following review.

Causes of diabetes mellitus that need to be aware of

Diabetes mellitus occurs due to the hormone insulin which is insufficient or does not function properly to process blood sugar.

Well, to prevent diabetes mellitus, you need to know the various causes and risk factors, such as:

1. Genetic factors

One of the causes of diabetes mellitus that cannot be avoided is genetic factors. 

This is why diabetes is often referred to as hereditary disease. 

Even so, that does not mean you will automatically get diabetes if your father or mother has it.

The cause of diabetes in the form of genetic factors makes a person more likely to get the disease.

Various studies show that a child's risk of developing diabetes will be greater when his mother has this disease as well.

Meanwhile, if both parents suffer from diabetes, the risk will be even greater, reaching around 50 percent.

According to the American Diabetes Association, type 2 diabetes mellitus has a very strong relationship with family history and descent, compared to type 1 diabetes.

Experts suspect that there is a specific gene that causes diabetes mellitus that can be passed down from parents to later generations. Unfortunately, experts still find it difficult to determine which genes cause diabetes mellitus.

Genetic factors are not a single cause of diabetes mellitus, there are other factors that play a role, for example the application of a bad lifestyle. 

One of them, sedentary lifestyle aka lazy to move

2. Age factor

Who would have thought if age could be one of the causes of diabetes mellitus? Yes, in addition to genetics, age is also a cause of diabetes mellitus that cannot be prevented.

As you get older, your risk of developing diabetes increases. Actually not just a cause of diabetes mellitus, but also various other chronic diseases, such as heart disease and stroke.

This can happen because disease and age are related to one another. The older you are, the body's function will also decrease, including changes in the way the body uses blood sugar.

As a result, many elderly people affected by diabetes because their bodies can not use blood sugar optimally.

In addition to the function of organs and body systems that begin to decrease its performance, age as a cause of diabetes mellitus also causes decreased immune system. This can facilitate the occurrence of infections in certain body organs that are in charge of regulating blood sugar.

Factors that cause diabetes mellitus that attacks over time, making doctors recommend patients aged 45 years or more to take a diabetes test. This test is highly recommended especially if someone is overweight.

3. Insulin resistance

The combination of genetic congenital and poor lifestyle can be a cause of insulin resistance. Especially if your body is immune to insulin (resistant), meaning that the body cannot use insulin properly.

You might produce enough insulin to channel glucose into the body's cells. However, your body may not necessarily use insulin effectively so sugar builds up in the blood.

If this condition is allowed to continue, your risk of developing type 2 diabetes will be even higher. So, it can be concluded that the occurrence of insulin resistance is a cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

4. Eat lots of sugar

Sweet foods, like dessert, are indeed foods that are very difficult to resist. The unique shape and taste of pampering the tongue make many people addicted to this one food.

However, you must be careful. If consumed excessively for a long time, sweet foods can be a cause of diabetes mellitus.

In fact, not only causes diabetes, a high-sugar diet can also cause many other health problems, such as weight gain, which in turn leads to obesity.

Many studies have proven that a high sugar diet is the leading cause of diabetes and obesity.

Although overeating sugary foods can cause diabetes mellitus, this does not mean you are anti-sugar at all. You can still eat sweet foods because after all the body needs sugar as an energy intake. The key is one, limit your daily sugar intake.

Often eat excessive sweet food plus sedentary lifestyle or lazy to move can be the cause of diabetes mellitus.

No doubt, now all your activities are made easier by the presence of various online applications that offer services to purchase goods, food, or other services. Just a few clicks away, your order will be delivered directly to your doorstep or your office.

Besides saving more time, this online application also makes you not need to be tired of spending a lot of energy to get the various items you need. However, did you know that these various facilities can actually be a cause of increased risk of diabetes mellitus later in life?

Slowly but surely, lazy movement can cause insulin resistance, which is a factor that causes diabetes mellitus. Especially if this lifestyle is followed by poor diet and unhealthy habits, such as smoking or drinking alcohol. Diabetes will strike you faster.

In fact, according to the World Health Organization or WHO, sedentary lifestyle is one of the 10 most causes of death in the world, one of which is due to diabetes mellitus which leads to complications.

6. Being overweight

Having overweight or obesity is also a cause of increasing the risk of diabetes mellitus, compared to healthy people. 

In fact, the American Diabetes Association says that obesity can increase the risk of diabetes mellitus by 80 percent.

The cause of this diabetes causes changes in the body's metabolism that results in cells in the body unable to respond to insulin properly. 

As a result, the body is less sensitive to insulin, so there is insulin resistance.

Well, insulin resistance is finally the cause of diabetes mellitus. The reason is, this condition makes glucose accumulate in the blood.

7. Use certain drugs

Drugs taken to treat various health problems that you experience may be able to affect blood sugar levels, which in turn can be a factor causing diabetes mellitus. Especially if you have a history of diabetes or have diabetes.

Based on the UIC Center several types of drugs that cause increased risk of diabetes, including:

  • Steroids
  • Statins
  • Diuretic drugs, especially thiazide diuretics
  • Beta-blockers
  • Pentamidine
  • Inhibitor prosthesis

Some drugs without a prescription in the form of syrups and contain lots of sugar

If you are using one or more medications that cause an increased risk of diabetes, it is important to ask the doctor about the risks and benefits of the medication. 

Don't also stop taking any type of medication before you ask the doctor about its safety.

8. Certain medical conditions

There are many causes of diabetes mellitus that you might never have guessed before. One of them, certain medical conditions. 

Yes, in fact, some people can develop diabetes because of this cause, such as:

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

One of the main causes of PCOS is obesity, which is closely related to insulin resistance and diabetes. If you already have insulin resistance, someone is more at risk for having prediabetes or type 2 diabetes.


Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. This organ is responsible for producing the hormone insulin whose function is to maintain normal blood sugar. Disruption of the insulin production process due to this disease can be a cause of diabetes mellitus.

Cushing's Syndrome

This one syndrome increases the production of the hormone cortisol whose effect will increase blood glucose levels. The excessive amount of cortisol is what ultimately causes diabetes.

This disease can be the cause of diabetes mellitus because the body can not produce enough insulin and glucagon.

9. Dehydration

Lack of fluid in severe stages can be a cause of various health problems ranging from kidney disease, heart disease, and even diabetes. Unfortunately, not many people know that dehydration and diabetes are related to each other.

A report in the Journal of Diabetes Care found that low fluid intake can be a cause of an increase in blood sugar which ultimately leads to diabetes.

In the report, the researchers monitored healthy adults for more than nine years. As a result, adults who drink less than 1/2 liter of water per day are more at risk of increasing blood sugar levels than those who drink more than 1 liter per day.

Experts theorize that the cause of diabetes can cause an increase in the hormone vasopressin, which causes the kidneys to hold water and the liver to produce blood sugar. This condition has the potential to affect the body's ability to regulate the hormone insulin over time.

While for those of you who have high sugar levels, lack of fluids is no longer a cause of diabetes but can worsen this condition.

Dehydration can cause your blood pressure to rise and your body to produce stress hormones, both of which can trigger a drastic increase in blood sugar (hyperglycemia). As a result, diabetes symptoms become more severe or even cause complications.

10. Use mouthwash

You might not think that mouthwash is included as one of the causes of diabetes mellitus. Despite being a common daily routine, the cause of diabetes this one seems like you should not be underestimated.

According to research published in the British Dental Journal in 2018, the habit of using mouthwash twice a day is reported to increase the risk of diabetes by as much as 50 percent, rather than only gargling once a day.

Other research also mentions that mouthwash can be the cause of diabetes mellitus so it gets worse. This is because the chemicals in the mouthwash in addition to killing bacteria that cause real gum inflammation also destroy the good bacteria in the mouth that are important for forming nitrate monoxide.

Nitrate monoxide is needed by the body to help regulate insulin production. Now, when this bacterial colony is dead, the body's work in producing insulin and regulating blood sugar levels is disrupted. This can cause insulin resistance, which is one of the factors causing diabetes mellitus.

For that, you should use mouthwash wisely, so that the benefits do not turn out to be a cause of increased risk factors for diabetes.

Tips for healthy living to prevent diabetes
Genetic factors that cause diabetes can not be changed, but it is important to pay attention to the lifestyle that you adopt everyday.

You may be one of the people who are at high risk of developing diabetes, but if you take care and maintain the body properly, this one disease can be avoided.

Suppose there are two people carrying the gene that causes diabetes from his family. One of them has a healthy diet, keeps his cholesterol level, and keeps physically fit, while the other one is obese (BMI> 25) and is also lazy to move.

Well, people who are overweight and lazy to move are very likely to develop type 2 diabetes because lifestyle choices greatly affect the way your body works against insulin. So, it can be stressed that the cause of diabetes is not just genes or age, but can be a combination of other factors.

Therefore, before it's too late, start implementing a healthier lifestyle. It is not easy indeed, but with a strong intention and determination, this is very possible.

No need to change drastically, start by applying the following simple things:

1. Choose food wisely

What you consume daily in fact affects your overall health. That is why, it is wise to have food that will consume. As mentioned above, high-sugar foods are one of the main causes of diabetes mellitus.

So, try to limit the foods that cause diabetes. In addition to sweet foods, you are also advised to avoid foods that are high in salt and fat. Remember, not to eliminate the intake of sugar, salt, and fat altogether. However, reduce or adjust the portion of the meal.

Make sure you do not consume foods that cause diabetes excessively.

2. Beware of hidden sugar

High sugar foods are not only contained in dessert. In fact, sugar is contained in many other types of food, with different designations.

Some other names of sugar that are often contained in food or drinks include, sucrose, corn syrup, honey, fructose, maltose, dextrose, and so forth.

Therefore, it is important to always read the nutritional value printed on the packaging of food or drinks you want to buy. 

Look carefully at how much sugar is contained in it. This is how you reduce your consumption of foods that cause diabetes mellitus.

In addition, if you see a product that has a sugar free label, aka sugar free, try checking the composition again because usually there are still additional artificial sweeteners in it.

3. Be diligent in sports

True physical activity, including exercise in addition to making the body fit can also help prevent various chronic diseases in the future. 

Yes, regular exercise can help increase insulin sensitivity and keep blood sugar under control.

Doing this activity can keep you away from the cause of diabetes mellitus, which is living a comfortable life. 

This activity also helps diabetics lose or maintain their ideal weight. Not only that, exercise also reduces the risk of being obese, aka the other causative factors for diabetes.

No need to do heavy physical activity. Do whatever type of sport you like. The key is one, make your body move every day.

Several types of physical activities that are easy and inexpensive to do in daily routines include brisk walking, bicycle riding..

Several types of physical activities that are easy and inexpensive to do in daily routines include brisk walking, biking, swimming, yoga, or jogging. If you previously have a history of certain diseases, you should consult a doctor first.

Although lifestyle changes can help alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus, prevention is always a priority.